Kidney Stones: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Kidney Stones Causes


Renal calculi, also known as kidney stones, are crystalline masses that begin to form from the inside of the kidneys. They can, however, appear anywhere throughout your urinary tract, which consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. There are certain signs and symptoms that can indicate the presence of kidney stones, at which point you might have to get checked at a nearby hospital or visit a kidney specialist. With the latest equipment and a dedicated team of specialists, Altius Hospitals is the tertiary care centre where compassion is seen in caring for you all the way through.

Kidney stones can cause severe medical pain. Depending on the type of stone, many factors might induce its formation.

Types of kidney stones


The majority of stones are calcium stones. They can be due to calcium phosphate or maleate, although they are frequently made of calcium oxalate.  Foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, potato chips, peanuts, and chocolate, can cause kidney stones.

Uric acid

This is the second most typical kidney stone. People with gout, diabetes, obesity, and other forms of metabolic syndrome are susceptible to them. A diet high in purines can raise the acidity of the urine. Animal proteins like fish, shellfish, and meats contain a colourless chemical called purine that should be avoided.


UTI patients are more likely to develop this type of stone (UTIs). Large stones of this nature can clog the urinary tract.


Cysteine kidney stones occur in about 1 in 7,000 individuals worldwide. The hereditary condition cystinuria causes it in both men and women. Cystine is a naturally occurring acid in the body. Sometimes, cystine seeps from the kidneys into the urine when this sort of stone forms.


Kidney stones are most common between the ages of 20 and 50.

The chances of developing a stone might be increased by a variety of circumstances.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, men are more likely than women to have kidney stones.

A history of kidney stones or family history could put you in danger.  Other less frequent risk factors include:

  • Dehydration, obesity, a diet rich in protein, salt, or sugar, hyperparathyroidism, gastric bypass surgery, and a high-protein, high-salt, or both diet.
  • Using medications such as triamterene diuretics, anti-seizure meds, and calcium-based antacids that promote calcium absorption.

A kidney stone may exist for years with no symptoms. Picking up such asymptomatic kidney stones coincides with USG scans for any other ailment or a general health check-up. But if it starts to move or is very large, you can have symptoms. Kidney stone symptoms include:

Experiencing discomfort in your side or lower back. This discomfort may begin as an intermittent dull aching pain. It might worsen as time passes, and this can necessitate a trip to the ER.  There is a possibility of kidney stones existing for long time without showing any symptoms, When the kidney stone changes its position or enlarges in size, symptoms may be felt. Symptoms of a kidney stone include:

  • Pain in your lower back or on the side of the body where the stone is located. The pain can start as a dull ache that becomes severe and results in a trip to the emergency room.
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Bloody urine.
  • Discomfort while urinating.
  • Trouble urinating.
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Fever or chills
  • Foul-smelling urine.

If any of the above symptoms are noticed, it is advisable to visit a kidney specialistLook for the best hospital near you.  You may also visit any of the branches of Altius Hospitalsas they have a team of kidney specialists with great success in treating kidney stones.


After a diagnosis, the healthcare provider will first determine what treatment is required. Some microscopic kidney stones may be expelled from the body with urination. Severe pain or discomfort could result from this. If the doctor feels surgery or medication is essential, below are the available options for treatment:

Medications. The pain may be managed with medication, nausea and vomiting may be controlled, and the ureters may be relaxed to allow the stones to pass on their own.

Surgical procedures: shockwave lithotripsy, uroscopy-assisted open surgery, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (rarely done).


Diverse wastes are dissolved in urine. Crystals start to develop when there is too much waste in too little liquid. The crystals draw in additional substances and combine to produce a solid mass that will continue to grow unless it is eliminated from the body through urination. Various treatment modalities are available at Altius Hospitals to treat kidney stones. The treatment is decided by the kidney specialist based on the size of the kidney stone.